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abound (verb) – to exist in large numbers or amounts; to be plentiful, abundant, numerous.
abundant (adjective) – plentiful; more than enough available.
accelerate (verb) – to speed up; to cause to happen sooner than expected.
accumulate (verb) – to gather or pile up over time; to amass.
allusion (noun) – an indirect or subtle reference to something.
anent (preposition) – about; concerning.
anguished (adjective) – experiencing great mental, physical, or emotional pain; tormented; tortured; suffering.
appellation (noun) – a name or title.
appropriation (noun) – an amount of money set aside for a particular purpose; the act of taking something for one’s own use, typically without the owner’s permission.
arbutus (noun) – a type of evergreen shrub or tree; a pretty flowering plant.
arcade (noun) – a covered passageway lined with arches.
arduous (adjective) – difficult; strenuous.
balmy (adjective) – pleasantly warm; mild.
bashful (adjective) – shy; timid; self-conscious.
behoove (verb) – to be necessary or proper.
belle (noun) – a very attractive, charming, and popular girl or woman; the most popular and attractive girl or woman in a particular group.
belligerent (adjective) – hostile; aggressive; warlike.
Bohn up (verb) – more commonly “bone up.” This expression means to study hard; to renew one’s skills; to refresh one’s memory. Possibly refers to Henry George Bohn (1796-1884), a British publisher who produced many 19th-century study texts.
bracing (adjective) – fresh and invigorating.
bric-a-brac (noun) – miscellaneous small objects kept as decoration; knickknacks; trinkets.
Bright’s disease (noun) – a general term that was used for different types of kidney diseases. Named after the English physician Richard Bright.
broadcloth (noun) – a tightly woven clothing fabric that is smooth and shiny.
calamity (noun) – a disaster; extreme misfortune.
calculated (adjective) – done with an understanding of the likely consequences.
Caligraph (noun) – an early type writing machine, invented in 1880 by George Washington Newton Yost.
caliper (noun) – an adjustable tool that can be used to measure the thickness or width of something.
catastrophe (noun) – a disaster; a tragic or destructive event.
cavalier (noun) – a brave and courteous gentleman; a mounted soldier; a knight.
cerek (noun) – a kettle or pot used for cooking.
cherub (noun) – a type of angel usually shown as a sweet child with wings; a person who is like a small, innocent angel.
conduce (verb) – to help bring about; to lead or contribute to a certain result.
conducive (adjective) – making it possible or likely for something to happen or exist; tending to produce.
congenial (adjective) – agreeable; pleasant and enjoyable; likable.
consignment (noun) – goods given to someone to be sold.
To give something “on consignment” means to let someone take it with the understanding that they do not have to pay for it unless they sell it to someone else. If they cannot sell it, they can return it to the person who gave it to them at no cost.
conspire (verb) – to plan secretly with someone, usually to do something wrong or harmful.
convalesce (verb) – to recover one’s health after an illness.
corresponding (adjective) – going together; directly related; accompanying; matching or similar in character, form, or function.
countermand (verb) – to cancel; to withdraw; to revoke or retract.
crash (noun) – a coarse, durable fabric usually made of linen, a cloth woven from flax.
crush (noun) – a strong but brief attraction to somebody.
cultivate (verb) – to prepare land in order to grow plants; to nurture and develop the growth of something.
curry (verb) – to groom.
cutter (noun) – a small, horse-drawn sled.
damper (noun) – someone or something that depresses, subdues, or inhibits.
décolleté (adjective) – having a low-cut neckline.
defunct (adjective) – no longer existing or functioning.
1. (noun) – a person authorized to represent others, often at an event like a meeting or conference.
2. (verb) – to assign a task or responsibility to another person.
delicato (adjective) – an Italian word meaning considerate; thoughtful.
denomination (noun) – a religious group or branch; the value, unit, or size of something like money or stamps.
deplore (verb) – to disapprove of something; to hate or dislike something very much.
deprive (verb) – to take something away from someone; to deny.
deputation (noun) – a group of people assigned to accomplish a task; a delegation; a committee.
derby (noun) – a type of hat.
dereliction (noun) – deliberate neglect; abandonment.
devout (adjective) – deeply devoted or loyal to something, like religion; sincere; heart-felt.
diffidence (noun) – shyness; meekness; a lack of self-confidence.
dire (adjective) – very bad and serious.
disheveled (adjective) – messy; disorderly; untidy.
disparaging (adjective) – belittling; insulting; unflattering.
disreputable (adjective) – not respected; having a bad reputation.
dissembler (noun) – someone who hides their true thoughts or feelings.
1. (noun) – the craft of mechanical drawing; the creation of detailed drawings of machines or mechanical structures, including specific measurements of their dimensions.
2. (verb) – to make mechanical drawings; to draw detailed pictures of machines or mechanical structures.
dreary (adjective) – dull; uninteresting; depressing.
duck (noun) – a coarse, durable, canvas-like fabric usually made of cotton.
dyspeptic (adjective) – causing or having indigestion.
eloquence (noun) – the skillful use of language; the ability to write or speak well and effectively.
1. (noun) – an attempt to achieve a goal.
2. (verb) – to try hard to do or achieve something; to attempt.
epistle (noun) – a letter.
equinoctial (noun) – a violent rainstorm that occurs around the time of an equinox, which happens twice a year when the sun crosses the celestial equator and day and night are equally long.
expend (verb) – to spend; to use up.
expenditure (noun) – an amount of something, like money, that is spent; the act or process of spending.
exposition (noun) – a large public show of art or industrial developments; an explanation of an idea or theory.
expressage (noun) – the fast transport of items from one place to another; the fee charged for express transport services.
exquisite (adjective) – extremely beautiful and usually delicate.
fetching (adjective) – attractive; appealing; delightful.
1. (noun) – a feeling that something very bad is going to happen.
2. (verb) – giving the feeling that something very bad is going to happen.
formality (noun) – An established form, rule, custom, or procedure that is considered proper to follow.
French leave (noun) – to depart without notice.
furlough (noun) – a temporary leave of absence.
gambol (verb) – to run and jump about playfully; to frolic.
1. (noun) – an excess supply of something.
2. (verb) – to supply to excess; to fill beyond capacity.
haberdashery (noun) – men’s clothing and accessories; a place that sells men’s clothing and accessories.
harrow (verb) – to cause distress to; to trouble or bother.
hospitable (adjective) – friendly and welcoming to guests.
hummocky (adjective) – full of small mounds or ridges; bumpy; uneven.
ignorance (noun) – a lack of knowledge, information, or education.
illumine (verb) – to brighten; to illuminate; to light up.
illustrious (adjective) – well known and admired.
1. (noun) – a tool.
2. (verb) – to put something into effect.
implore (verb) – to ask desperately; to request strongly; to beg.
impound (verb) – to seize; to take possession of; to confiscate.
inaugurate (verb) – to begin; to start off; to launch officially.
inauguration (noun) – a formal beginning or introduction of a system, policy, or period; a ceremony marking the beginning of something, like a presidential term.
indignant (adjective) – being very upset about something that is unfair or wrong.
induce (verb) – to persuade or influence someone to do something.
inducement (noun) – something that persuades or influences someone to do something.
infer (verb) – to use known facts or evidence to draw a logical conclusion.
initiation (noun) – formal admission into a group or organziation; the act of beginning something.
insinuate (verb) – to suggest or hint at something slyly.
1. (noun) – a very close friend; a confidante.
2. (verb) – to hint or suggest.
3. (adjective) – very personal or private; closely acquainted.
intimidate (verb) – to scare someone into doing or not doing something; to bully.
invaluable (adjective) – extremely useful or important; so valuable it cannot be measured.
judicious (adjective) – having or showing good judgment or sense.
judiciously (adverb) – acting with good judgment or sense.
1. (noun) – the structural foundation of a ship that runs from bow (front) to stern (back) along the centerline at the bottom of the hull (body). Sometimes it extends down as a blade or ridge to increase the ship’s stability.
2. (verb) – to tilt or lean over sideways; to capsize.
kirmess (noun) – also spelled kermis. A festival or fair to raise money for charity.
1. (noun) – a sweet-smelling evergreen tree or shrub.
2. (noun) – a wreath of honor given to someone for great achievement.
3. (noun) – honor and recognition earned for great achievement.
To “rest on one’s laurels” is an expression that means to rely on one’s past accomplishments instead of working towards future success.
levy (verb) – to impose a tax or fee.
looking glass (noun) – a mirror.
meditate (verb) – to think deeply; to contemplate; to plan in the mind.
1. (noun) – a threat or possible danger; someone or something likely to cause harm.
2. (verb) – to threaten.
menagerie (noun) – a collection of different types of animals displayed in an exhibit; an unusual and varied group.
mettle (noun) – the ability to handle difficult situations with courage, strength, and determination; strength of spirit; vigor; stamina.
mounted (adjective) – seated on top of an animal, like a horse.
munificent (adjective) – very generous.
oblige (verb) – to put in a debt of gratitude for a favor or service; to make something necessary; to require; to obligate.
ominous (adjective) – threatening; giving the impression that something bad is going to happen.
palatial (adjective) – spacious and luxurious like a palace.
paternal (adjective) – fatherly; relating to or coming from one’s father.
pecuniary (adjective) – having to do with money.
personage (noun) – an important person.
peruse (verb) – to read.
picayune (adjective) – petty; worthless.
placate (verb) – to sooth or calm; to make someone less angry or hostile.
ply (verb) – to use; to wield.
preliminary (adjective) – introductory; something that comes before, and leads up to, a major event or experience.
presumptuous (adjective) – failing to observe the limits of what is permitted or appropriate; going beyond what is right or proper to do; overly forward.
prevail (verb) – to triumph; to win out; to successfully persuade or influence.
prig (noun) – a person who is stuck up and acts superior to others.
prodigy (noun) – a young person who has exceptional talent or ability.
prolong (verb) – to extend the duration of something; to make something last longer.
prolonged (adjective) – extended; drawn out; lengthy.
promiscuous (adjective) – casual or random; not selective; unrestrained; indiscriminate.
promptly (adverb) – done without delay; immediately; in a timely manner.
propensity (noun) – a strong natural tendency to do something.
proprietor (noun) – the owner of a business or property.
propriety (noun) – conformity to the established standards of good or proper behavior or manners.
prosy (adjective) – boring; dull; commonplace; showing no imagination.
protracted (adjective) – lasting a long time; lasting longer than expected; drawn out.
provocation (noun) – words or actions that make someone upset or angry.
prowess (noun) – skill; expertise.
1. (noun) – a limited amount of something allowed to a person; a fixed portion.
2. (verb) – to allow each person a certain limited amount of something.
regalia (noun) – distinctive clothing or accessories that indicate a special occasion or status; special clothes; finery.
regulate (verb) – control; manage.
regulation (noun) – a rule or law designed to govern behavior; the control or management of something.
repair (verb) – to go someplace; to come together; to gather.
row (noun) – a loud argument or quarrel.
rush (verb) – to hurry; to move quickly toward something (or someone) in an effort to attack or capture it (or him/her).
salver (noun) – a fancy tray used to serve food and drinks, usually on formal occasions.
satchel (noun) – a shoulder bag with a long strap.
scrumptious (adjective) – extremely delicious.
secrete (verb) – to hide something away; to steal.
sedate (adjective) – calm; dignified; composed; unhurried.
seraglio (noun) – the palace rooms reserved for the women in a sultan’s harem.
shag (verb) – to chase, catch, or fetch something, like a ball.
shebang (noun) – everything involved in the situation or organization being considered; usually used in the phrase “the whole shebang.”
shekel (noun) – the basic unit of money in Israel.
shrewd (adjective) – clever; cunning.
smitten (adjective) – overwhelmed or struck by love for someone or something.
soiree (noun) – an elegant, formal party that usually takes place in the evening.
solicitous (adjective) – anxious; concerned.
spectacles (noun) – eyeglasses.
spondulics (noun) – also spelled “spondulicks.” Money.
stave (verb) – to put something off until a later time; to delay.
stringency (noun) – strictness; tightness; a state caused by a shortage of money.
subsequent (adjective) – following; coming after.
sufficient (adjective) – enough; adequate.
sumptious (adjective) – grand; lavish; expensive; extravagent.
surcingle (noun) – a belt or strap that binds a saddle or blanket to the back of a horse.
swindle (verb) – to cheat someone out of their money or property.
tawdry (adjective) – showy and cheap; gawdy.
theosophist (noun) – one who subscribes to a particular religious philosophy that includes a belief in reincarnation and spiritual evolution.
1. (noun) – an amount of money, usually ten percent of one’s income, given as a tax, especially to support the church or clergy.
2. (verb) – to pay or give a small percentage of money, especially to support of the church or clergy.
1. (noun) – clothes.
2. (verb) – to dress up in fancy clothes.
1. (noun) – work.
2. (verb) – to work.
tomfoolishness, tomfoolery (noun) – extremely silly or stupid behavior.
towheaded (adjective) – having very light blonde or white-blond hair.
treasonable (adjective) – relating to or involving the betrayal of one’s country; traitorous.
1. (noun) – something that has little value or importance.
2. (verb) – to treat someone or something as unimportant.
trifling (adjective) – small; trivial; unimportant.
trousers (noun) – pants.
tutelage (noun) – instruction; guiding influence or guardianship.
ubiquitous (adjective) – present everywhere; constantly encountered; widespread.
unanimous (adjective) – agreed to by everyone.
unduly (adverb) – unnecessarily; excessively; not justifiable.
unmitigated (adjective) – complete; total; not lessened.
unprecedented (adjective) – new; unknown; never before experienced.
unscrupulous (adjective) – dishonest; unfair; unethical.
valiant (adjective) – brave; determined; heroic.
varioloid (noun) – a mild form of smallpox; a disease resembling smallpox.
vessel (noun) – a large boat or ship.
vexed (adjective) – annoyed, frustrated, or worried; upset.
via. (preposition) – by way of; taking a particular route to get someplace.
vicinity (noun) – surrounding area; neighborhood.
viz. (adverb) – abbreviation for videlicet, a synonym for “namely,” “that is to say,” or “as follows.”